Types of Breeding

Line Breeding

Line breeding is the breeding of dogs that have common ancestors or breeding with a slightly removed relative, such as a grandson to granddaughter or an uncle to niece etc. The benefit of breeding in this way is the ability to produce more consistent litters.
To successfully reach the desired outcome you must have knowledge of both pedigrees, the sire and the dam, for at least five generations. This will give a much better chance to have the desired characteristics and help eliminate health problems.
Most breeders follow a policy of line breeding, so that they can assure quality without the risk of the inherent dangers that can come with inbreeding.
This technique seems to be the best way to get consistently desirable off-spring without the risks of inbreeding and the uncertainty of outcrossing or outbreeding.

Out Breeding

Outbreeding is the mating of two dogs that come from completely separate breeding lines, and also are not line bred themselves.
Outbreeding is rarely used since the sorts of breeds of dog that would qualify for most outbreeding programmes do not exist.


When outcrossing you would mate two dogs that have both been line breed, but come from completely separate lines. Even if the two dogs involved in an outcross are strongly linebred, uniformity in the first generation is still generally doubtful.
It is mostly used long-term to improve deficient traits in a line. Generally to intensify the positive traits you will have to start proper line breeding or inbreeding.


Inbreeding is where very close relatives, for example, father and daughter, half-brother and half-sister or brother and sister, are mated.
Unfortunately inbreeding doesn’t just improvement the good traits within a line but also risks defects that become common with inbreeding, so it must be done very carefully. The sad reality is that sometimes faults are so severe whole litters have to be destroyed. This type of breeding is therefore not really advised, especially for novice breeders.
There are some in cases where there is no alternative to inbreeding, such as re-creation of a nearly extinct breed or where breeds have been newly created.

To summarise, the most successful breeders use a formula which involves line breeding with some inbreeding used, but only when sufficiently outstanding traits in dogs of their line result. Outcrossing is only used when another line can help to supply a stronger characteristic in which they may be lacking.

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General Health
Training Tips

Selecting a Puppy

Each breed will have its own inherent personality traits. An adult dog’s personality is influenced and conditioned by the environment it is raised in and the type of training it receives. Results of this personality test can help reveal the temperament of the puppy before you select it.

1. The dominant, rebellious type of pup would not be recommended as a pet but depending on the breed would be more suitable as a guard or watch dog if trained properly, this type of pup will need an experienced handler.

2. A docile pup which demands affection would be better for a family home with younger children, a pup for this type of home should also show traits of being stable and obedient, this type may also be fine for a first time dog owner.

3. The independent pup that is very sure of himself but requires firm teaching is also not recommended for young children, this type would also make a good working dog or watch dog with the correct training.

4. A nervous, anxious or skittish pup could be a bit unpredictable and would also not be recommended around children or an inexperienced owner.

There are certain things one can do to help reveal the traits/personality of a pup, try the following tips to get a different type of reaction from each pup with varying traits:

• Attract the puppy by moving away from it and then clapping your hands.
• Walking around the puppy then removing yourself from it’s vision and trying to call it.
• Gently placing the puppy on it’s back and placing your hand on it’s chest to check for type of reaction.
• Stroke the puppy on its head, neck and back, make note of response.
• Elevate the puppy by picking it up with both hands around its chest and watch for reaction.

These are some of the things one can do to check what type of temperament the puppy has, although they can help you to decide and make a choice, there is no guarantee how the pup will turn out as its environment and training will have a huge impact. It is also important to pick a pup according to your own personality, if you are a soft or submissive type of person or a dominant one then the dog should be picked accordingly.